Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures, &
v. 2.0 (updated and expanded December 2009, mainly by Jennifer Godwin,
with additional support by Florencia Cornet and Kennedy Watkins;
v. 1.0 prepared mainly by Sean Barnette, Fall 2000)
Table of Contents:
Dialects Introduction to dialects, not language specific.
Linguist list 3.202 Discussion of use of el/la for words beginning with the sound /a/.
Linguist List 3.275 Further discussion of el/la for words beginning with /a/.
Overview of Spanish Vocabulary, texts, grammar, and history of the language. Includes a world map with Spanish-speaking countries highlighted.
Spain's other languages Introduction to other
languages spoken in
Spanish Language Brief history of Spanish and its presence around the world.
The Spanish Language Worldwide Number of Spanish speakers in 23 countries.
Spanish Lexicography Information on Spanish spoken throughout the world, emphasizing dictionary use.
Argentine Dialect Information about the Argentine dialect and Lunfardo (Slang of Buenos Aires).
Dialects of South America Audio clips of South Americans speaking Spanish.
History of Latin American Spanish Brief history of the development of Latin American Spanish.
in Latin America Links to pages on the languages spoken in
Living Languages of the Americas Select a country to see a list of the languages currently spoken in that country. Also has information on the number of speakers of each language.
Mapa de las familias lingüísticas de Sudamérica Map showing the distribution of indigenous languages. In Spanish.
Mexico Information on the number of speakers of the various languages in the country, including Spanish.
Regional Variations A comparison of accents in
Spanish for Latin America Brief overview of many of the Latin American dialects (including Amazon, Bolivian, Carribbean, Mexican, and more).
Andalusian Dialect An encyclopedia article that briefly introduces the sounds of the Andalusian dialect.
Andalusian differences Essay explaining differences of Andalusian Spanish.
Spanish of Andalucia A research paper from
The Arab element in Spanish Information about the Arab invasion and the linguistic influence of Arab on Spanish. In Spanish.
Arabic Lessons Basic Arabic vocabulary and an introduction to sentence writing. Also includes general information about Arabic.
Arabic link page Introduction to Arabic vocabulary and grammar. Includes links alphabet, personal names, proverbs, etc.
Introduction to Arabic General information about Arabic, including an introduction to Arabic alphabet.
Lengua mozárabe Overview of the Mozarabic language, including a writing sample. In Spanish.
Loan words A list of Spanish words adopted from Arabic.
Mozarabic language General overview of the Mozarabic language
Aragonese The official website of the Academia de l’Aragonés. In Aragonese.
Aragonese Language This site includes a pronunciation guide, sample text, sample translation and links related to Aragonese.
Ethnologue: Aragonese General overview of the Aragonese language, including links.
Asturian The official website of the Academia de la Llingua Asturiana. In Asturian.
Asturian alphabet and pronunciation Includes links and a basic guide to pronunciation.
Ethnologue: Asturian General overview of Asturian, including information about its number of speakers, location, and dialects.
Basque (euskera) Overview of the language, including a pronunciation guide, sample text, translation, and links.
Basque Language General information about Basque, including the origin and isolation of the language.
A Language of its own Basic vocabulary, numerals and a map of Spanish languages.
Euskal Herria Information about the Basque language and Basque Country in general.
Euskaltzaindia This is the official website of the Royal Academy of Basque. In Basque.
General information about the Basques FAQ about the Basque people and language.
Historia del euskera History of Basque country and the Basque language, including a map and timeline. In Spanish.
A Grammar of Basque Research paper from Mouton
El Caribe General information on
Caribbean Spanish This site examines the Spanish
spoken in the
Enigmas of Cuban Spanish Research paper that
discusses the variation of Spanish spoken in
Balear Information on the history and evolution of the Balearan language. In Spanish.
Catalá Information on the language and number of speakers. In Catalonian with English link.
Catalan language General overview of the origin, history, and dialects of Catalan.
Catalan (català) This site includes an overview of the language, a pronunciation guide, a sample text, and links.
Catalan-Valencian-Balear A site discussion the number of speakers, classification, and dialects of Catalan.
Catalonian Manuscripts Links to images of medieval Catalonian texts.
Catalan Phonology and Orthography Site discussing the sounds and spelling of the Catalan language.
Hispanic Studies: The Catalan language
Languages across Europe BBC Language site with basic information about Catalán, which includes sound clips.
Mallorquin Language Short list of vocabulary in Mallorquin.
Links page Includes links about the history of Chabacano, the
El chabacano Website with description, links to articles and institutions, etc. Includes Padre Nuestro. In Spanish.
Chabacano Glossary This comprehensive glossary includes the original Spanish word, the phonetic transcription, the Chabacano word, and the English translation.
Chabacano language Includes information about the origin of the term “Chabacano,” history and samples of the language, and more.
Proverbs, Riddles, Metaphors A research paper from the
in Chabacano A
research paper from
History of Chabacano Brief history of Chabacano. Also includes prayers, poems, and information about the dialects of Chabacano.
El idioma Criollo de Filipinas More detailed history of Chabacano. In Spanish.
The Phillipine Linguistic Identity
language of Dominica Introduction to vocabulary and grammar of the
Creole language of
Society for Caribbean Linguistics Society for Caribbean Linguistics links page, which has many links to pages about Caribbean Creole languages.
Ethnologue: Gallego Basic information about Gallego, including statistics about Gallego speakers, dialectal information, and more.
False Cognates A comprehensive list of false cognates between Portuguese and Spanish.
Galician-Gallego Basic information about the pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar of Gallego.
El Gallego Es A series of pages about the history of Galician, including linguistic developments in the twentieth century. In Spanish.
Extensive links page Includes several links pertaining to Galician media, bilingual texts, general information, schools, and more.
Gallego links page Includes links to Galician dictionaries, Galician media, history of the language, and more.
Instituto da lingua galega Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. In Galician.
La Lengua Gallega Information about the legal status, number of speakers, and location where Galician is spoken. In Spanish.
Map of Galicia Also includes links to dialectal maps, grammar, medieval texts, and a general overview.
Vocabulario Galician/English/Spanish word list. In Spanish.
Dictionaries of Indigenous Languages Links to online dictionaries of indigenous languages such as Mapuche, Quechua, Fueguinas, and more.
Languages of Bolivia Brief information about many of the indigenous
Ethnologue: Languages of Paraguay Brief
information about many of the indigenous languages of
Influence of Indigenous Languages This site discusses the influence of indigenous languages on Spanish.
Quechua language and dialects Includes information about Quechan dialects and a map of Quechua family sub-groups.
Jewish Language Research Website Comprehensive guide to the orthography, dialects, history, linguistic features, and sample texts of Judeo Spanish.
Judeo-Spanish: Birth, Death, and Re-birth Detailed history of Judeo-Spanish. Also includes information on spelling, literature and future of the language.
Ladino (djudeo-espanyol) Includes Hebrew script for Ladino, samples texts, and links.
Future of Ladino Dr. Jay Levinson addresses the future of the Ladino language.
Ladino in the US An article about Ladino press in
Ladinokomunita Brief overview of Judeo-Spanish. Includes sound clips.
Map: Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) Language Map showing the dispersion of Sephardic Jews in the world. Also includes links overview, grammar, vocabulary, etc.
Metathesis in Judeo-Spanish Consonant Clusters A research paper with information about Judeo-Spanish phonology from UC, Davis. PDF File.
Phonological Retention and Innovation in the Judeo-Spanish of Istanbul A research paper with information about Judeo-Spanish linguistics from UC, Davis. PDF File.
Abbreviations Spanish and English translations of Latin abbreviations.
Del Latín al Castellano List of Spanish words derived from Latin (including pronouns, numbers, days, and more). In Spanish.
History of Latin Alphabet Site that discusses the history and origin of the Latin alphabet.
Latin Alphabet Omniglot website that lists the ancient, Roman, and modern Latin alphabet.
Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid English to Latin translator including over 15,000 Latin words. Also includes a word list and grammar aid.
Information about Latin teaching, grammar, history, quotes, literature,
El Día de Lunfardo A newspaper article that discusses celebrating El Día de Lunfardo and gives information about words used in Lunfardo. In Spanish.
Diccionario de Lunfardo Extensive list of Lunfardo words with Spanish meanings. In Spanish.
Lunfardo Uruguayo Information about Lunfardo in
Lunfardo y Tango Information about Lunfardo and its relation to tango, including a list of expressions and links to other aspects of Argentine culture. In Spanish.
Spanish Net College Short Lunfardo/Spanish word list. In English and Spanish.
House Words, phrases and background information about
Bonaire’s Papiamento Language Origins of Papiamento, characteristics of creoles in general, and some words and phrases.
Creole Languages: Papiamento Brief information about Papiamento. Includes a list of the top 10 verbs and a verb conjugation tool.
of Spanish and English on Papiamentu A research paper from the
Papiamento: Bon Bini A brief introduction to Papiamento including links to vocabulary, songs and books in the language.
Papiamento Explains the origin of Papiamento and includes a list of books and websites where more information about the language can be found.
Papiamento (Papiamentu) This site includes pronunciation guide, links, and a sample text of Papiamento.
Papiamento in Aruba Brief history of Papiamento in
Zones A research paper from the
Languages Links to information on endangered languages in
Information on the number of speakers of each
language/dialect spoken in
Habla de Extremadura. Includes many links to other sites and bibliography about the culture, language and linguistics of Extremadura.
Extremaduran An overview of Extremaduran including information on its history, dialect, linguistic features, and present situation.
in Spain Information on five languages spoken in
of Spain Descriptions and histories of the languages spoken in
Mapas de Isoglosas Links to maps produced by the Atlas Lingüístico de la Península Ibérica that show dialect zones.
La Página del Idioma Español Home pages from which links can be found for various topics, such as congresses of the language, Spanglish, and debates over orthography, corruption of the language, sexism in the language, etc. Also has a link to the Historia del Idioma Español page. In Spanish.
Peninsular Spanish (Online Book):
Syntax of Spanish A paper which goes into great detail about Spanish grammar and the spread of dialects.
Sounds and Spelling of Spanish:
Latin American Spanish Pronunciation A helpful pronunciation chart and guide to Latin American Spanish, including examples and sound clips.
The Letter "X" Real Academia Española’s history and pronunciation of the letter “x.” For information about other letters, change the “x” at the end of the link. In Spanish
The Sounds of Spanish An online textbook with
comprehensive information regarding the phonology, orthography, and
pronunciation of Spanish in
Bilingual Education This article discusses the use of Spanglish to help teach English writing skills.
Conversaciones en torno al spanglish Excerpts of interviews with Ilán Stavans, author of Spanglish, A New American Language. Includes map of where Spanglish is common. In Spanish.
The curious mixture of English and Spanish Brief explanantion of Spanglish that also presents its staying power.
Diccionario de Spanglish A comprehensive list of frequently used Spanish terms. Introduction in Spanish.
Don Quixote The first chapter of Don Quixote de la Mancha translated into Spanglish.
Los españoles no hablan inglés, hablan
"spanglish" Article discussing the presence of Spanglish
Spanglish, A New American Language Link to an audio recording of NPR’s Bob Edwards’ interview with Ilán Stavans, author of Spanglish,
A New American Language.
Spanglish links A page which contains links to forums and articles relating to Spanish. (In Spanish with introduction in English.)
Spanglish: "se deliveran grocerías" BBC Mundo article that discusses Spanglish phrases and an excerpt from Don Quixote in Spanglish. In Spanish.
Spanish and English Research paper from
Spanish fun facts, games and slang:
Slang and Lunfardo Information about the lingo and music specific
Ecuadorian Slang A list of Ecuadorian slang terms that includes sound clips.
Jergas de Habla Hispana
Interactive lists of slang words from all Spanish-speaking countries,
Jeringonza An overview of Jeringonza, a game many young Spanish-speakers play similar to Pig Latin.
Mexican Spanish Slang Comprehensive list of slang
words used in
Numerals Spanish numerals in a variety of dialects.
Spanish Trivia Anecdotal information on Spanish throughout the world.
Ay Caramba! Newspaper article that discusses Spanish ads on U.S. English television stations.
Census Bureau A site from the US Census Bureau that
provides numbers and statistics related to Spanish-speakers in the
Do you speak American? This PBS page corrects myths
about the history of Spanish in the
Embracing English while Keeping Spanish A Chicago Tribune article that talks about the process of learning English for Spanish-speaking immigrants.
Foreign Language Enrollments Charts and statistics related to the number of people learning foreign languages at the college level.
Gang Study Abstract for an analysis of the linguistic
effects of gang affiliation among
Governmental Resources in Spanish A page that has links to governmental entities such as the Center for Disease Control, Medicare, Dept of Education, etc (In Spanish or English)
A Growing Marketplace: Spanish Speakers in the US
This article discusses the growing Hispanic population in the
Is Spanish in the US to stay? Brief explanation of the status of Spanish in the US.
Communications Guide to adding accents, tildes, and other special
characters on keyboards in the
Más 'speak spanish' que en España
Article from El
on the current and future state of Spanish in the
Living Language Information on the history of Spanish in
Spanish for the US: What flavor do we want? An article that addresses Spanish translation in the US and what goals translation should meet.
on American English: Past and Present A page discussing the
history of loan words and current status of Spanish influence in the
Spanish language spoken in the US A Spanish translation service
advertisement which explains how translation in the
Spanish TV in the US joins the big time The New
York Times article about the growing presence of Spanish on television in
Use of Spanish in the US An article which discusses the
trends/statistics, challenges, and opportunities of Spanish in the
Speaking Spanish in the USA: Variations in Vocuabulary
Usage A book featuring a list of Spanish words that compares their
CJAV. CJAV is a group who contains 32 youth associations along the Valencian land dedicated to preserve and promote Valencian language and culture. Includes an extensive relation of linguistic and historic questions/articles related to Valencian. Also includes an e-book about Valencian.
Lengua Valenciana Information about the origin of Valencian, a Valencian dictionary, and more. In Spanish.
Lo Rat Penat.
Institution founded in 1878 in
PNP, Plataforma Normes d' el Puig. Site of PNP, a Plataform constituted by more than 60 associations of all the Valencian territory to protect the Valencian language. This site includes a large report about the current situation of Valencian. Also includes the full text of the "Manifest to the Valencian identity and Valencian language". Full English, French, Spanish and Valencian versions.
RACV, Royal Academy of Valencian Culture. Official web site of the Real Academia de Cultura Valenciana (RACV) founded by the Valencian provincial Government in 1915.
Valencia to World. Information about the Valencian language, linguistics, grammatical and phonetic questions.
Valencian. Basic information about the legal status of the Valencian language.
Valencian and Catalan Article about the Spanish Supreme Court recognizing that Valencian and Catalan are the same language.
Valencian Links Page A page offering numerous links that are related to the Valencian language. (Includes sites in English, French, Spanish, and Valencian)
Valencian.org International site for the Valencian language. Available in many languages.
Atlas lingüístico y etnográfico de Castilla-La Mancha Provided by Pilar García Mouton and Francisco Moreno Fernández (Universidad de Alcala), 2003
Basque Linguistic Atlas From speech to Automatic Maps, by Gotzon Aurrekoetxea. In English. (PDF file)
Cartografía lingüística de Extremadura Linguistic and ethnographic maps of Extremadura.
El atlas lingüístico Vasco (EHHA) Provided by Universidad del País Vasco, also by Gotzon Aurroetxea (PDF File)
El atlas lingüístico y etnográfico de
Andalucía Linguistic atlas of
Galega TILG Tesouro Informatizado da Lingua Galega
Iberian Peninsula (ALPI)
Linguistic atlas of the
Índices do atlas linguistico galego From the Instituto da lingua Galego, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.
Interactive Atlas of Catalan Provides audio and visual materials. Available n English.
Linguistic Atlases (
Diversidad Lingüística Latinoamérica Comprehensive linguisitic maps of Latin America.
Mapa Lingüístico de América Latina
The World Atlas of Language Structures Online Information about many indigenous languages (Nahuatl, Quechua, etc). Searchable by country or language family.
América Central From the Universidad de Costa Rica and the Universidad de Bergen.
Costa Rica From Unidad de la diversidad, an information service about Spanish.
Mexico From El Colegio de México (PDF File)
Nuevo Mexico From Universidad de Nuevo Mexico (PDF File)
Puerto Rico From Tomás Navarro Tomás. Provides maps, videos, and links.
Atlas Lingüístico etnográfico de Chile
The linguistic and ethnographic Atlas of
El atlas lingüístico y etnográfico de Chile. Linguistic and ethnographic atlas of Chile. Locations and questionnaire.
Atlas lingüístico etnográfico de Colombia Isoglosas léxicas del español de Colombia
Colombia: Linguistic Atlas From the Centro Virtual Cervantes
Perú Information about the language maps of Peru.
Corpus del español Database including over 20.000 Spanish works from 1200s-1900s. Provided by Mark Davies from Brigham Young University.
Textual genres for translation.
Proyectu Caveda y Nava Lists of texts written or translated to Asturian
Basque Collection of 42 narratives in the Basque language (Euskara). In English.
Linguistic Corpus of the University of Vigo. Includes many searches for Gallego texts. English
CORGA Corpus de Referencia do Gallego Actual (de Centro Ramón Piñeiro)
Corpus do Portugues Comprehensive Portuguese corpora (including 45,000,000 words).
v. 2.0 Prepared mainly by Jennifer Godwin, with additional support by Florencia Cornet and Kennedy Watkins.